FC Barcelona is most recognised football club in the world On November 29, 1899, Hans Gamper founded FC Barcelona, along with eleven enthusiastic practitioners of what at that time was an unknown sport called 'foot-ball'. Football is the sport number 1 in the world. People play and even bet on football. At that time, I could not imagine the enormous magnitude that this initiative would end up reaching over time. Throughout its more than one hundred years of life, Barça has experienced spectacular growth in all areas and has become more than a sports entity, making Barça's motto a reality is 'more than a club'. Barça has become, for millions of people from any part of the world, a symbol of identity not only sports, but also social, political and cultural. In the most difficult moments it has been the flag of Catalonia and has represented the yearning for freedom of the Catalan people, a symbol that continues to be deeply rooted in the idiosyncrasies of the club and the social mass. In the Spanish context, Barça looks like an open and democratic club. And in the rest of the world, Barça identifies itself with solidarity causes, specifically with children, through its sponsorship agreement with UNICEF. For a whole century, Barcelona has experienced moments of glory and misfortune, bright times and others not so successful, epic triumphs and important defeats. And each of these moments has contributed to defining the personality of a club that, due to its peculiar characteristics, is unique in the world. FC Barcelona is leading football club in spanish football LaLiga. A more than a hundred-year-old story necessarily goes through very different stages, both from a social point of view and from a sports perspective. The first years (1899-1922), from the foundation to the construction of the Les Corts stadium, Barça was a football club that had to be singled out compared to the other Barcelona teams, until it became the reference club in the city. Barça became the leading club in Catalonia, and also opted to approach a Catalan sensibility that was gaining more and more strength. From Les Corts to Camp Nou (1922-1957), the entity experienced conflicting situations. On the one hand, the associative growth, which exceeded 10,000 members for the first time, and the determined orientation towards professional and mass football, a stage in which players such as Alcantara and Samitier stood out. On the other, the material and political difficulties derived from the Spanish Civil War and the postwar period, as the club had to survive in a very adverse climate, with the murder in 1936 of President Josep Sunyol, the person who precisely promulgated the motto 'sport and citizenship'. Likewise, the entity survived and initiated a social and sports recovery that materialized with the construction of the Camp Nou, under the decisive influence of the Ladislau Kubala player. From the construction of the Camp Nou to the 75th anniversary (1957-1974), Barça experienced a stage of mediocre sports results, but of consolidation as an entity, with constant social growth and a slow but progressive recovery of its identity, despite of adverse circumstances. A palpable sensation that was concretized for the first time in the motto 'El Barça, more than a club', pronounced by President Narcís de Carreras. The entrepreneurial board chaired by Agustí Montal brought a soccer player to Barcelona who has marked the history of the club: Johan Cruyff. From the 75th anniversary to the first European Cup (1974-1992) the life of the club was marked by the arrival of democracy in football clubs, the beginning of the long term of Josep Lluís Núñez, the extension of Camp Nou on the occasion of the 1982 world championship and the conquest of the Recopa (1979) in Basel, a great sporting success but also social, with a huge and exemplary Barcelona expedition that showed all of Europe the fusion of the Catalan and Catalan flags. The return of Cruyff, this time as coach of the so-called 'Dream Team' (1990-1994), had its climax in the conquest of the European Cup at Wembley Stadium (1992), with the famous Koeman goal. Consecration in the world. From Wembley to the Club World Cup (1992-2009) marks the most recent evolution of the club, framed between four fundamental sporting milestones, the three European cups and the Club World Cup. These years are marked by the end of the presidential stage of Josep Lluís Núñez and the celebration of the Centennial of the club (1999), which showed the full social potential of the entity. After the presidency of Joan Gaspart (2000-2003), the June 2003 elections led to the presidency Joan Laporta, which has begun a new stage of social growth, with 172,938 members, and sports successes such as the four Leagues, the Champions League reached in Paris and Rome and the Club World Cup. From the 2008-09 season, with the arrival of Josep Guardiola on the bench of the first team, the team took on new energies and achieved in 2009 the Six Cups at stake, a milestone that has been recorded forever in everyone's memory The Barcelonaists. Sports successes that have greatly reinforced the social and media projection of the club. The 2009/10 season, the second of Guardiola at the head of the bench, culminates in the achievement of the second consecutive League title, the twentieth in the history of the club, and which will be remembered as the "99 points" for being a record score. The squad would end up playing in the regularity competition until the last game, against Valladolid, and celebrate the title the same day, before the fans of Camp Nou. The greatness of the Futbol Club Barcelona is explained, among many other factors, by its impressive medal winners, which makes it the team with the most titles in the Spanish state and one of the most successful in the world. The showcases of the Barcelona museum host all possible trophies, led by the European Cups won at the Wembley (1992), Paris (2006) and Rome (2009) finals and the Abu Dhabi Club World Cup (2009). Apart from this top continental award, Barça has earned an unquestionable prestige in Europe, being the only team on the continent that has been present uninterruptedly in European competitions since its creation in 1955. Among the many milestones achieved in Europe, it is worth highlighting the condition of 'king of the Recopa' that the Barca team holds with four awards. In addition, the Barcelona players accumulate three titles corresponding to the Fairs Cup (later UEFA Cup and currently European League) of the years 1958, 1960 and 1966. This property trophy was also awarded in 1971 in a special final that faced the first winner of this competition, FC Barcelona, and the last winner, Leeds United.
Real Madrid - Madridista - famous spanish football club Real Madrid C.F. It is the most successful club in football history. He is the only one with the record figures of 13 European Cups and 33 Leagues LaLiga football titles. Real Madrid was founded in 1902. Julián Palacios is the first president, but it was Juan Padrós, Catalan and from Barcelona, who formally established the institution that year. The interest in football grew so much in Spain that Madrid proposed to hold a tournament in honor of King Alfonso XIII. The initiative became the Spanish Cup (Copa del Rey). With a growing number of members, the club saw the need to change the grounds where he played to increase the number of spectators and to raise more money. He moved to the O'Donell stadium. And it was then, in 1920, when the King of Spain granted the title of Real to the club. At the beginning of the 20s, Real Madrid returned to its pioneering role in Spanish football. The team made a series of trips outside Spain, with enormous international success. Real Madrid is one of the founders of the National League Championship, in 1928, and has never descended to Second Division. Real Madrid, spanish football club had accepted the fact that the success they were looking for could only be possible with the best players. Goalkeeper Zamora and defenses Ciriaco and Quincoces were signed. The trio formed the best defense in the world. The 1931-32 season was historic for the team trained by Lippo Hertza. The meringues finished without a league without losing a single match. It was the beginning of an era of dominance of Real Madrid during the Second Republic: 2 leagues and 2 Cups in 4 years. Only one month after the victory in the Republic Cup in 1936, the Civil War broke out. The moment of glory was threatened first and then destroyed by the military conflict. Many players finished their careers or left the country to go into exile. The team would not recover until long after the war. The president of Real Madrid when the conflict began, Sánchez Guerra, was exiled, and an interim president, Antonio Ortega, was executed by the Franco regime after the Civil War. Due to the war in Madrid, the club tried to play the Catalan Republican League outside the conflict, thanks in part to the club's Catalan coach, Francisco Brau. But despite the support of the players union and all other Catalan clubs, F.C. Barcelona vetoed its participation. The Civil War and the postwar period were an absolute tragedy for the team for more than a decade. Real Madrid would not win any league between 1933 and 1954, its worst streak in its history; and only 2 Cups, in 1946 and 1947. He was also twice on the verge of descending to Second Division. The local rival, Atlético, was supported by the army that had won the conflict. On the other hand, as a club that had supported the Republic, it did not generate sympathies in the regime of Francisco Franco and during the first 15 years of Franco the club was in the weakest position in its history. In 1943, in the semifinals of Copa, Real Madrid faced F.C. Barcelona. In Les Corts, the Catalans won 3-0. In the return, Madrid eliminated its rival with a historic comeback. 11-0, and a rivalry that already existed became eternal. On December 15, 1943 Santiago Bernabéu became the president of the club. Former player and coach, he became the most important man in the history of Real Madrid. French journalists Gabriel Hanot and Jacques Ferrán dreamed of a competition that brought together the champions of each European country. Among them they made a series of rules that reached the headquarters of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). The proposal really pleased those responsible for the French newspaper L’Equipe, which undertook with UEFA to organize the tournament. They appointed a commission that included Santiago Bernabéu as one of the vice presidents. The championship became a reality in 1956: the European Cup was born. Real Madrid won their first European Cup on June 13 of that year. It would be the first of five consecutive cups he would win. This unique feat was achieved in part thanks to one of the greatest footballer in history, Alfredo Di Stéfano, under the presidency of Santiago Bernabéu. Madrid discovered Di Stéfano on the 50th anniversary of the club, in 1952, when the team faced the Millionaires. Since then the club noticed him and finally managed to sign him. He became the best player in the history of Real Madrid being the leader of the team that would win 5 consecutive European Cups, 8 leagues and become the greatest dynasty in football history. No other club has managed to match their exploits. The team was composed of legends, apart from the Argentine Alfredo di Stéfano, such as the Hungarian Ferenc Puskas, the Frenchman Raymond Kopa or the Spanish Francisco Gento, current President of honor of the club and who holds the unique record in the world of champion of 6 Cups of Europe. In the 1959-1960 season, former club player Miguel Muñoz became a coach. He won the fifth consecutive European Cup in his first season as a player and became the first to win the trophy as a player (three times) and as a coach. In 1960 the meringues would be crowned as the first world champions to win the first edition of the Intercontinental Cup, beating the Peñarol of Montevideo 5-1. In the 60s the team faced a period of changes. In Spain he dominated without rival, winning 8 League titles in that decade: in the 50s the club had won more European Cups than leagues. And he also won the Sixth European Cup in 1966 (that year he did not win the League). Football dressed in mourning when the president who had taken Real Madrid to the top died on June 2, 1978. The 70s had been the only decade since the creation of European competitions in which Madrid had not won any international title, although in return it won another 6 leagues in that decade. Hugo Sánchez's goals helped crown a decade of success The 80s were dominated by a generation of young players. La Quinta del Buitre, led by Emilio Butragueño, made Real Madrid one of the best teams in history. Hugo Sánchez's goals helped crown a decade of success. The club won 2 UEFA Cups with historic comebacks in Europe and magical nights at the Bernabéu. The club also won 5 leagues in a row, a record in Spain, between 1986 and 1990. Real Madrid would then begin a new golden era. First, 32 years later, he was again European champion. But not only once: he won 3 Champions Leagues in 5 years: the Seventh in 1998, the Eighth in 2000 and the Ninth in 2002. The canterano Raúl and legends like Hierro, Roberto Carlos or Redondo accompanied the triumphs. In 2000 Florentino Pérez became president and began the so-called Galactic era. In those first 4 years he won 1 Champions League (the Ninth European Cup) 2 leagues and created a dream team with the best stars in the world of football: Figo, Zidane, Ronaldo, Beckham joined Raúl, Hierro or Casillas. Real Madrid won 2 more leagues in 2007 and 2008 under the direction of Fabio Capello and Bernd Schuster. But after a horrible 2009 season, Florentino Pérez returned to the presidency to try to restore the morale of Madrid and strengthen the team. In the second term of Florentino he signed the best Real Madrid player after Di Stéfano, Cristiano Ronaldo, and a plethora of stars such as Benzema, Xabi Alonso, Luka Modric, Gareth Bale or Toni Kroos. Star technicians like José Mourinho, Carlo Ancelotti or the rookie and former football legend like Zinedine Zidane trained the team. In these years, Real Madrid won 2 Champions League in two infarct finals against city rivals, Atlético de Madrid, with heroic performances by captain and legend Sergio Ramos. The Tenth came in 2014 after 12 years of European drought thanks to a goal in the 93rd minute and the Eleventh in a penalty shootout in 2016. The club also won a league in 2012 that beat all national records with 100 points and 121 goals. Both the 2016-2017 and 2018-19 seasons were historic. In 2017, Real Madrid became the first team to repeat the title in the Champions League format and the first time since 1958 that the club won both the League and the European Cup. Together with the Club World Cup and the Super Cups of Spain and Europas, it became the best year in the history of Real Madrid as a football club. In the 2018-19 season, Real Madrid became the first sports club to win both the European Cup of football and basketball (the Tenth of this section) the same year. The 13th European Cup was also the third in a row and the fourth in 5 years. It is a dynasty compared to any other football… except Real Madrid de Bernabéu, Di Stéfano and Gento. Real Madrid is the king of Europe and Spain and although the rivals have come and gone to face him in the history of football, nobody comes close to his legacy. The Santiago Bernabéu stadium has a capacity of 81,000 spectators. Around 80% of the capacity is occupied by Real Madrid members who have a subscription, while the rest of the tickets are sold to the general public. The animation stand of Real is the Grada FANS RMCF. He was born with the spirit of uniting Madrid players who want to cheer the team unconditionally both in Santiago Bernabéu and outside it. He wants to receive all Real Madrid players who believe in an animation without violence, politics, racism and intolerance, open to all ages and with only one feeling: MADRIDISM. 2000 Real Madrid players from all countries, ideologies, races, beliefs and sexes go to the Grada FANS dressed in white from Real Madrid to support their team every game. Real Madrid football winners! European Cup / UEFA Champions League: titles (13) - record: 1955–56, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1958–59, 1959–60, 1965–66, 1997–98, 1999–2000, 2001–02, 2013–14, 2015–16 , 2016-17, 2018-19 The league titles (33) - record: 1931–32, 1932–33, 1953–54, 1954–55, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1960–61, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65 , 1966–67, 1967–68, 1968–69, 1971–72, 1974–75, 1975–76, 1977–78, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1985–86, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988 –89, 1989–90, 1994–95, 1996–97, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2011–12, 2016-2017 Copa del Rey: titles (19): 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1917, 1934, 1936, 1946, 1947, 1961–62, 1969–70, 1973–74, 1974–75, 1979–80, 1981–82, 1988–89 , 1992–93, 2010–11, 2013–14 UEFA Cup: titles (2): 1984–85, 1985–86 European Super Cup: titles (4): 2002, 2014, 2016, 2017 Intercontinental Cup: titles (3) - shared record: 1960, 1998, 2002 FIFA Club World Cup: titles (3): 2014, 2016, 2017 Spain Supercup: titles (10): 1988, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2008, 2012, 2017 Eva Duarte Cup (former Spanish Super Cup): title: 1947 League Cup: Title: 1984–85
Manchester United football club history and greatest players Manchester United is a world-famous football club that has great wealth and a worldwide fan base to keep them as one of the richest and most famous clubs for years to come. They have won more titles than any other team in the English Premier League, which is another reason why this club is still so successful. History of Manchester United 1878-1909 Manchester United had not always been named Manchester United. In fact, Man United FC was formed in 1878 by railway workers at Newton Heath who also named the team "Newton Heath LYR" (Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway). Newton Heath LYR joined the English Football League in 1892 only to increase its financial problems and by the end of the 19th century Newton Heath LYR faced bankruptcy. The history of Manchester United is due to the owner of the local brewery John Henry Davies, who decided to invest in the club in exchange for some interest in running the club, including a name change to Manchester United in 1902. Newly named Manchester United under manager Ernest Mangnall started well finishing season 3 on 1903/04 and 1904/05. The following season 1905/06, Man United FC reached the quarterfinals of the FA Cup, but most importantly finished second in the Second Division, giving them the promotion to the English First Football League, 12 years after being relegated as Newton Heath LYR. Celebrating the change to the First football Division, manager Mangnall signed the Welshman Billy Meredith nicknamed Welsh Wizard. Meredith played a key role in Manchester United's first victory in the Football League Championship after the 1907/08 season. As champions of the league, Manchester United played in the first Charity Shield where they won the trophy by beating QPR 4-0 in 1908. 1909 turned out to be another successful year when Manchester United won its first FA Cup, after beating Bristol City 1-0 in the final. History of Manchester United 1910-1919 1910 is an important year to mention in this story of Man United FC, as it was the year that Old Trafford became the home of Manchester United when it moved from its former Newton Heath playing field LYR Bank Street. Man United FC lost their first game in Old Trafford 3: 4 against Liverpool FC in front of 80,000 spectators. His first season at Old Trafford in 1910/11 also gave Manchester United another league title, however, the following season 1911/12 Man United finished the league in a disappointing 13th place. Manchester manager Ernest Mangnall resigned after this poor final to join Manchester United, Man United's rival. His successor became JJ Bentley, who took over the team helping them finish 4th after the 1912/13 season. The shape of Manchester United continued to decline and almost escaped the decline by one point in 1914/15. World War I broke out forcing football to remain on hold and the Football League suspended until 1919. History of Manchester United 1920-1929 Manchester United returned to the English Football League in 1919 after the end of World War I. The team had all new faces on the team compared to the Manchester United team before World War I. Man United FC continued to decline in shape, which relegated them to the Second Division in 1922, where they remained until the rise in 1925. In 1927, John Henry Davies, who had saved the club from extinction and brought them to Old Trafford, died and was replaced by GH Lawton as president of the club. Spending 5 years in the First Division of Manchester United did not achieve much and were relegated again in 1931, spending the next 4 years in the Second Division before winning a promotion in the 1935/36 season. Last year of football before World War II, Manchester United finished 14th in the First Division at the end of the 1938/39 season. Football was once again put on hold by World War. Manchester United History - Busby Years 1945 - 1969 Football resumed in 1945 after World War II and Matt Busby was appointed manager. Matt Busby demanded an unprecedented level of control over team selection, player transfers and training sessions, which in turn led Manchester United to finish second in 1947, 1948 and 1949, including a Cup trophy FA in 1948. Manchester's form continued to improve until its first league title in 1952, 41 years after the last time champions were crowned. Manchester United became known as one of the best English First Division football teams by winning two more consecutive titles in 1956 and 1957 with a team of players whose average age was 22 years. After winning two consecutive titles in 1956 and 1957 under manager Matt Busby, this young Manchester United squad became known as "the Busby Babes" according to the history of Manchester United. In 1957, Manchester United was the first team to compete in the European Cup. They were eliminated by Real Madrid in the semifinal, however, they also achieved a record victory that still remains on the way to the semifinal when they destroyed the Dutch team Anderlecht 10-0. The next season of 1958 would prove to be the most tragic moment in the history of Manchester United. On the way home from his victory in the quarterfinals of the European Cup against the Red Star in Belgrade, the plane carrying the Manchester United players, officials and journalists crashed while trying to take off after refueling in Munich , Germany. The Munich air disaster that occurred on February 6, 1958 claimed 23 lives, including those of eight players: Geoff Bent, Roger Byrne, Eddie Colman, Duncan Edwards, Mark Jones, David Pegg, Tommy Taylor and Billy Whelan, and injured several more. Matt Busby took time to recover from injuries sustained in this accident and reserve team manager Jimmy Murphy assumed responsibility for managing Manchester United. This same year, Manchester United reached the FA Cup final, but would lose to Bolton Wonderers. The history of Manchester United shows Matt Busby returning and rebuilding the team during the 1960s, bringing players like Denis Law and Pat Crerand, who combined with the next generation of youth players, including George Best, to win the trophy of the FA Cup in 1963. The following season, 1964, Man United finished second and then won the League title in 1965 and 1967. In 1968, Manchester United became the first English club to win the European Cup after beating Benfica 4-1 in the final. In 1968, Manchester United had three European football players of the year playing for them, including Bobby Charlton, George Best and Denis Law. Matt Busby resigned in 1969 and his successor was the reserve team coach and also former Manchester United player Wilf McGuinness. History of Manchester United 1969 - 1986 After an eighth place after the 1969/70 season and a very poor start to the 1970/71 season, Matt Busby was persuaded to resume administrative responsibilities while Wilf McGuinness returned to his position as coach of the reserve team. In June 1971, Frank O'Farrell was appointed manager, but lasted only 6 months before being replaced by Tommy Docherty in December 1972. Docherty played an important role in saving already doomed to the decline of Manchester United, but did not have the same fate in doing so in 1974 when Manchester United FC was relegated once again to the Second Division. It is important to mention that by this time, the best Manchester United players, Law, Charlton and Best had already left the club. Man United FC reached the promotion the following season in 1975 and went on to the FA Cup final in 1976, where they were defeated by Southampton. The following year 1977, Manchester United reached the FA Cup final once again, but this time it was victorious against Liverpool, beating them 2-1 and winning another FA Cup trophy in the process. Tommy Docherty was fired shortly after the revelation of his adventure with the club's physiotherapist's wife. Following Docherty's dismissal, Dave Sexton was signed as the new manager of Manchester United in the summer of 1977. Under Dave Sexton, the Manchester United football club did not achieve any significant results, finishing second in the 1979/80 season and losing to Arsenal in the FA Cup final in 1979. With no result, Sexton was fired in 1981 despite the fact that the team had won the last seven consecutive games before his dismissal. Sexton was replaced by Ron Atkinson in 1981, who immediately broke the British transfer fee record by signing Bryan Robson of West Bromwich Albion. The Manchester United football club was successful when manager Atkinson won the FA Cup title twice in three years, including the FA Cup in 1983 and 1985. Manchester United was the favorite to win the league title during the 1985/86 season when they started their season with 13 wins and 2 draws in their first 15 games, however, they would finish the season in fourth place. After the 1986/87 season, Man United FC under the direction of Atkinson faced the danger of relegation in November and due to the classification of the team, Ron Atkinson was fired. History of Manchester United - Sir Alex Ferguson Years 1986 After the dismissal of Ron Atkinson, Alex Ferguson and his assistant Archie Knox arrived immediately and saved the team from the danger of relegation, taking them to 11th place at the end of the 1986/87 season. Despite a second place next year 1987/88, Manchester United again finished in 11th place the following 1988/89 season. Sir Alex Ferguson had almost also been fired if it weren't for the victory over Crystal Palace in the 1990 FA Cup final, saving Ferguson from being just another brief name in the history of Manchester United. The following year, Manchester United managed to take home the 1991 Cup Winners Cup trophy and the 1991 UEFA Super Cup, where they beat the Belgrade Red Star 1-0 in the final that took place in Old Trafford. The club's future looked good and next year it continued with more success, as Man United FC claimed the League Cup title after beating Nottingham Forrest 1-0 at Wembley in 1992. At the end of the 1993/94 season, Manchester United claimed their first league title since 1967. A year later, in the 1994/95 season, Manchester United won its second consecutive League title for the second time since it did so in 1957. Man United FC had also won the 1994/95 FA Cup, to complete the first "Double" in the club's history. The league title followed the following years and Manchester United had become one of the best teams, as well as the best clubs in the world. In the 1998-1999 season, the Manchester United football club became the first team to win the Premier League, the FA Cup and the Uefa Champions league, completing "The Treble" in the same season. A very important moment in the history of Manchester United was the final of the 1999 UEFA Champions League, where Manchester United faced Bayern Munich and was 1-0 with the game coming to the time of detention. Teddy Sheringham and Ole Gunnar Solskjær scored goals in the late detention time to claim a dramatic victory over Bayern Munich, in what is considered one of the best returns of all time. Manchester United also won the 1999 Intercontinental Cup after beating Palmeiras 1-0 in Tokyo and managed to remain the Premier League Champion for the 1999/00 season and the 2000/01 season. The 2001/02 season saw the Manchester United football club finish second and then claim the League title the following 2002/03 season. Man United won another FA Cup trophy during the 2003/04 season by beating Millwall 3-0 in the final at Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. During the 2005-06 season, Manchester United failed to qualify for the UEFA Champions League qualifying phase for the first time in more than a decade. The club recovered to secure a second place in the league and victory over Wigan Athletic in the final of the 2006 Football League Cup. The Manchester United football club regained the Premier League title in the 2006–07 and 2007–08 seasons, and completed the European double by beating Chelsea 6–5 on penalties in the 2008 UEFA Champions League final in the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow. In December 2008, the club won the FIFA Club World Cup and followed this victory with the 2008-09 Football League Cup, as well as its third consecutive title in the English Premier League. That summer, Cristiano Ronaldo was sold to Real Madrid for a world record of 80 million pounds. In 2010, Manchester United defeated Aston Villa 2–1 at Wembley to retain the League Cup, their first successful defense of a qualifying cup competition. After finishing as Chelsea runner-up in the 2009-10 season, United achieved a record 19 league title in 2010-11, securing the championship with a 1 to 1 draw against Blackburn Rovers on May 14, 2011. Manchester United history - Fans and rivalries Manchester United is one of the most popular football clubs in the world, with one of the highest average home care in Europe. The club's global fan base includes more than 200 officially recognized branches of the Manchester United Supporters Club (MUSC), in at least 24 countries. The Manchester United football club has rivalries with Arsenal, Leeds United, Liverpool and Manchester City, against those who dispute the Manchester derby. MANCHESTER UNITED HISTORY - PREMIER LEAGUE 19 TITLES: 1907–08, 1910–11, 1951–52, 1955–56, 1956–57, 1964–65, 1966–67, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1995–96, 1996–97, 1998–99 , 1999–2000, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2010–11 MANCHESTER UNITED HISTORY - SECOND DIVISION 2 TITLES: 1935–36, 1974–75 MANCHESTER UNITED HISTORY - FA CUP 11 Titles: 1908–09, 1947–48, 1962–63, 1976–77, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1989–90, 1993–94, 1995–96, 1998–99, 2003–04 MANCHESTER UNITED HISTORY - LEAGUE CUP 4 titles: 1991–92, 2005–06, 2008–09, 2009–10 MANCHESTER UNITED HISTORY - FA CHARITY / COMMUNITY SHIELD 19 titles: 1908, 1911, 1952, 1956, 1957, 1965 *, 1967 *, 1977 *, 1983, 1990 *, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 (* shared) MANCHESTER UNITED HISTORY - EUROPEAN CUP / UEFA CHAMPIONS LEAGUE 3 titles: 1967–68, 1998–99, 2007–08 MANCHESTER UNITED HISTORY - UEFA CUP WINNERS 'CUP 3 titles: 1990-91 MAN UNITED HISTORY - UEFA SUPER CUP 1 Title: 1991 MAN UNITED HISTORY - INTERCONTINENTAL CUP 1 Title: 1999 UNITED HISTORY OF MAN - FIFA CLUB WORLD CUP 1 Title: 2008 FAMOUS MANCHESTER UNITED FOOTBALL PLAYERS I decided to make this article about the best Manchester United football players of all times past and present. I may miss some players, but don't hesitate to add who you think deserves to be in this Manchester United Hall of Fame at the end of this page. There have been many great players who have been considered the best players in the world during their playing time. These players are the likes of George Best, Sir Bobby Charlton, Eric Cantona and many others who contributed their different skills to the football field and had a great impact on the football game during their game days. The history of Manchester United is full of great football players like those mentioned above, but over time the change comes and the new generation of players assumed the role of being the best Manchester United players, such as Ryan Giggs, Wayne Rooney and Cristiano Ronaldo To name a few. Without any additional presentation, you can find the best Manchester United players of the past and present listed below. These players are not in a particular order and all contributed something special to this great football club. NAME: GEORGE BEST BORN: 22 May 1946 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 01 Aug 1963 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 14 Sept 1963 vs West Bromwich (at Home), League APPEARANCES: 470 GOALS: 179 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 02 Jan 1974 NAME: TOMMY TAYLOR BORN: 29 Jan 1932 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 01 Mar 1953 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 7 March 1953 v Preston (Home), League APPEARANCES: 191 GOALS: 131 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 06 Feb 1958 NAME: RUUD VAN NISTELROOY BORN: 01 Jul 1976 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 01 Jul 2001 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 12 Aug 2001 v Liverpool, Charity Shield APPEARANCES: 219 GOALS: 150 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 28 Jul 2006 NAME: DAVID HERD BORN: 15 Apr 1934 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 01 Jul 1961 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 19 Aug 1961 v West Ham (Away), League APPEARANCES: 265 GOALS: 145 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 01 Jul 1968 NAME: ANDY COLE BORN: 15 Oct 1971 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 12 Jan 1995 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 22 Jan 1995 v Blackburn (Home), League APPEARANCES: 275 GOALS: 121 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 29 Dec 2001 NAME: DENIS LAW BORN: 24 Feb 1940 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 12 Jul 1962 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 18 Aug 1962 v West Brom (Home), League APPEARANCES: 404 GOALS: 237 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 01 Jul 1973 NAME: JACK ROWLEY BORN: 07 Oct 1920 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 22 Oct 1937 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 23 Oct 1937 v Sheff Wed (Home), League APPEARANCES: 424 GOALS: 211 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 01 Feb 1955 NAME: SIR BOBBY CHARLTON BORN: 11 Oct 1937 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 01 Jun 1953 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 6 Oct 1956 v Charlton (at Home), League APPEARANCES: 758 GOALS: 249 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 01 May 1973 NAME: CRISTIANO RONALDO BORN: 05 Feb 1985 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 12 Aug 2003 POSITION: Winger MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 16 Aug 2003 v Bolton (Home), League APPEARANCES: 292 GOALS: 118 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 01 Jul 2009 NAME: DENNIS VIOLLET BORN: 20 Sep 1933 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 01 Sep 1949 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 11 April 1953 v Newcastle (Away), League APPEARANCES: 293 GOALS: 179 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 01 Jan 1962 NAME: WAYNE ROONEY BORN: 24 Oct 1985 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 31 Aug 2004 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 28 Sept 2004 v Fenerbahce (Home) APPEARANCES: 365 GOALS: 181 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: 2017 NAME: OLE GUNNAR SOLSKJAER BORN: 26 Feb 1973 SIGNED FOR MAN UNITED: 29 Jul 1996 POSITION: Forward MANCHESTER UNITED DEBUT: 25 Aug 1996 v Blackburn (Home), League APPEARANCES: 366 GOALS: 126 LEFT MANCHESTER UNITED: Retired from playing, 28 Aug 2007
Gambling is Games of chance Games of chance, sometimes also referred to as hazard games (obsolete hazard games) (from French hasard, German for chance, derived from Arabic az-zahr, the majority of dice, see Hazard (dice game)) are games, the course of which is largely determined by chance. Or Sports betting. The most spread is football betting. Table of Contents1 Delimitation of games of chance 1.1 Theoretical delimitation of games of chance1.2 Legal delimitation of games of chance 2 games of chance with or without banker3 History, gambling ban and monopoly 3.1 Islam 4 types of gambling (selection)5 Typology based on social psychological factors 5.1 Socio-economic factors5.2 Situational factors5.3 Learning factors5.4 Factors of probability perception5.5 Perception of skill factors 6 addictions7 Illegal gambling and organized crime8 games of chance in different countries 8.1 games of chance in Germany8.2 Gambling in Austria8.3 Gambling in Switzerland8.4 Gambling in the United States8.5 Gambling worldwide 9 Gambling in computer games10 See also11 literature12 web links13 itemized evidence Delimitation of games of chance The influence of chance can be very different in games. In the so-called pure games of chance, such as. B. Roulette, Craps or Sic Bo, the result depends solely on chance. The influence of chance is less clearly quantifiable in games in which the participants can also have a decisive influence on the outcome of the game, such as backgammon and blackjack. In terms of quality, however, the influence of chance decreases according to the law of large numbers for long game sequences. In the legal assessment of whether there is a game of chance, there are other factors to consider, in particular the value of the stake and possible winnings. In addition, at tournament events such. In a poker tournament, for example, the entire tournament rules including the procedure used for the final evaluation are decisive, as they are legally defined in the game contract or mathematically and formally in the game theory modeling. These specifications also include information about the number of players and the amount of information that is available to a player at the time of a game decision, e.g. B. in the form of cards known to him in card games. Games, the legal classification of which was under discussion, were all zero-sum games in the sense of game theory (and not, for example, cooperative games), i.e. H. the sum of the (positive) winnings of players is always equal to the sum of the losses of the other players. This includes the case of a single player playing against a machine or against a banker who operates according to a fixed pattern (like blackjack). For this purpose, the organizer must be rated as a second player, who, however, has no skill to spend on his winnings, which the German case law regards as a reduction in the relative influence of skill.Spieltheoretische Abgrenzung von Glücksspielen Classification of board gamesWithin the game-theoretical classification of board games, games of chance form one of three classes of pure games, which from a playful point of view are characterized by the reasons for the unpredictability of the course of the game and meet the following criteria:Do the rules of the game provide for random decisions, for example with the help of a dice?Unlike in the case of Schere-Stein-Papier, are there sequential decisions made by players as part of a train sequence, so that a comparatively large number of combinations is possible for these train sequences?Are there game situations of imperfect information in which the players such. B. in card games like Skat have different information about the game so far? Pure games of chance are characterized by the answer to the first question in the affirmative and the answer to the other two questions in the negative. In addition, in the direct comparison of games, questions that are answered in the affirmative allow approximate quantifications that reflect the character of the game, for example, that in backgammon the influence of the players is greater through a greater combinatorial variety of possible train sequences than in humans do not annoy you. As a result, the random influence in backgammon is relatively lower than in humans do not annoy yourself (see figure). Factors of manual dexterity or speed of reaction are not covered by the classification, which, however, are more the exception in board games - unlike sporty games - for example in Mikado or Speed. Legal delimitation of games of chance The judgment of the Reichsgericht in 1928 on the Bajazzo finger punch machine contains the essential principles for assessing dexterity.Since games of chance are subject to legal restrictions in most countries, the legal delimitation of games of chance is subject to various legal norms and judgments that differ from country to country. Skill games are considered to be complementary to games of chance, the decision of which is primarily influenced by the mental or physical skill of the other players.In Germany, Section 3 (1) of the State Treaty on Gaming (GlüStV) states:A game of chance occurs when a fee is requested for the purchase of a chance to win and the decision about the win depends entirely or predominantly on chance. In any case, the decision about the profit depends on chance if the uncertain occurrence or outcome of future events is decisive. Betting against payment for the entry or exit of a future event is also a game of chance.Analogous definitions also contain § 1 of the Austrian Gambling Act (GlSpG) as well as Art. 3 of the Swiss Federal Act on Gambling (Gambling Act, BGS), whereby in Austria § 1 para. 2 GlSpG supplements that “Roulette, observation roulette, poker, black jack, Two aces, bingo, keno, baccarat and baccarat chemin de fer and their game variants ”are considered to be games of chance. Skill games are, according to the established case law in Germany, characterized by the fact that "the decision about winning and losing depends largely on the skills and the level of attention of the players." The average of the people to whom the game is opened must with a high degree of probability "," to determine the outcome of the game by skill. " "Mathematical calculations and intricate probability calculations", insofar as they exceed "the average ability of the people involved", are "not decisive for assessing whether a game has the character of a game of chance". However, this does not affect "the need to determine the character of the game using scientific methods". When evaluating the skill of a player, "all participants should strive for success using the skill they have at their disposal", but rather, as was decided in the case of a two-person game to be assessed, "one participant should be random " to let. In this sense, as early as 1928, the Reichsgericht saw the increase in the proportionate success that an average player in a game sequence achieved as a measure of the "possibility of influencing the outcome through skill," compared to the "random quota" as it instead of the Player's random mechanism. The use of differently justified measurement methods for the proportion of dexterity was made in individual cases in the case law, but is otherwise controversial. Tournaments are usually rated less restrictively. In Germany, certain tournament-organized games such as skat (see Preisskat), Schafkopf (see tournament sheep head) and Bridge (see tournament bridge) are not legally considered to be a game of chance if the tournament is long enough. In Austria, the amendment to the Gambling Act of 2008 with Section 4 (6) GlSpG created a similar area exception for card game tournaments. In addition, special games such as tarot, schnapps, chess, skat, bridge and billiards had previously been classified by the judiciary as games of skill. In 2007, the Swiss Federal Casino Commission came to the conclusion that a poker tournament can be a game of skill if the individual games are not evaluated independently of one another, but as a whole. The assessment was corrected by the Federal Supreme Court in 2010. With the amendment to the Gambling Act, which came into force at the beginning of 2019, regardless of a classification as a game of skill, an explicit possibility was created to obtain cantonal approval for poker tournaments. In the United States, the question of whether backgammon is a game of skill has been answered differently by courts. In Lichtenstein, backgammon is considered a game of skill, although the underlying legal norms have a comparatively explicit character. Games of chance with or without a banker Baccarat player, drawing by Albert Guillaume around 1897In the so-called banker games. Banking games, French Jeux de contrepartie such as Roulette, Craps, Sic Bo, Black Jack or Baccara banque, one party is preferred by the rules of the game (compare bank advantage) so that the opponents, the so-called pointers (from French point, German point, see Pharo ) definitely lose in the long run, i.e. with frequent play. In contrast to the banker games in the non banking games, French Jeux de cercle, all players - at least on average - have the same chances of winning. This is the case with most poker variants, such as Draw Poker, Seven Card Stud, Texas Hold'em or Omaha Hold'em, but also with Écarté or all the games in which there is no permanent banker, but this role changes as with Baccara chemin de fer. History, gambling ban and monopoly A game of Pharo, Johann Baptist Raunacher (1729–1771), Eggenberg Castle near Graz Roulette game around 1800 Share of the casino in Bad Nauheim from 1854 Monte Carlo Casino, one of the most famous European casinos Gambling hall for Pachinko in JapanAccording to the current state of science, gambling has been around for around 3000 BC. The oldest finds of six-sided cubes made of bone or ivory date from this time. The sites are in China and in the area of ancient Mesopotamia. Dice games are e.g. B. mentioned in ancient Indian scriptures, in Greek mythology Hercules throws a pretty courtesan against a temple guard. The cubes used today with dots on each side were probably around 2000 BC. BC invented in Egypt. In Roman antiquity, dice games were widespread in all layers, although the authorities threatened them with punishment. Dice were only officially allowed on Saturnalia. According to Roman law, gambling debts were not allowed to be claimed, and the lost could not be reclaimed in court. The house where gamblers were found was confiscated. Emperor Claudius was an enthusiastic friend of the Ludus duodecim scripta and even wrote a book about this forerunner of today's backgammon that has been lost. Tacitus reports in Germania about the Germanic dice passion that they played soberly with extreme recklessness around the house and yard, most recently for their own freedom. According to old German law, gambling transactions were considered illegal transactions and not only could the loss be reclaimed, but the winner could even take legal action. In the Middle Ages, both spiritual and secular authorities tried to ban the game. Such bans on card and dice games allow conclusions to be drawn about the distribution and development of games. A decree from the English king Richard the Lionheart dates from the 12th century stating that no one who was less than a knight was allowed to throw money. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the view gradually prevailed that high and excessive play - meaning high and borrowed bets - was to be threatened with punishment. For the first time, a distinction was made between prohibited and permitted games, whereby this distinction related less to the type than to the amount of the same. The widespread use of gambling in the 17th century gave rise to scientific research: Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat's (1654) treatment of the Chevaliers de Méré problem is considered to be the hour when probability calculation was born, although Galileo Galilei, Luca Pacioli and Geronimo Cardano mathematical work on certain games of chance. Different attitudes towards gambling developed in the various European countries at the beginning of the 19th century. While in some states these games were allowed and also held for the benefit of the state because public gambling was considered less pernicious than the secret, all hazard games were prohibited in other states. In France, where privileged playhouses existed in almost all major cities in the 18th and early 19th centuries, Louis XV. to ban gambling in vain. In 1806, Napoleon Bonaparte only allowed gambling in the playhouses of the Palais Royal in Paris, where until the closure by Louis Philippe at the end of 1837, roulette was also played alongside Pharo and Rouge et noir and Trente et quarante. After 1837 the great era of the casinos of Baden-Baden, Bad Homburg and Wiesbaden began, where Fyodor Michailowitsch Dostojewski got to know roulette and fell into love with it - this experience gave rise to the novel The Player - as well as Bad Ems, Bad Nauheim and Bad Pyrmont. In Germany, Prussia had preceded the abolition of the casinos before the March Revolution (1848). In the countries annexed in 1866, the contracts there with the casinos established by previous governments allowed them to continue until the end of 1872. However, they had to accumulate a significant part of the net profit to create a spa and beautification fund for the cities involved. After the founding of the empire, all German casinos had to close at the end of 1872 - they were only reopened under the National Socialists in 1933. The gambling ban in France and Germany primarily benefited the Principality of Monaco. François Blanc took this opportunity and ran the Monte Carlo casino in its heyday. Playing in foreign lotteries was also prohibited. B. in Prussia by the ordinance of July 5, 1847. Before the operation of public lotteries and raffles, permission had to be obtained. Also worth mentioning is the decision of the Reichsgericht of April 29, 1882, according to which bookmaking at horse races and betting on the totalizer should be considered a game of chance. In 1904 the k.u.k. Ministry of Justice a list of prohibited games, which has been exemplary for many decades - this list is remarkable in that there are some special skittles among them. In the legal sense, gambling requires an asset as a stake. If no such use is necessary, i. H. if you can win cash or material prizes in a game, but you cannot lose anything, it is legally a competition, e.g. B. a contest. The organization of games of chance currently requires official approval in accordance with Section 33h of the Commercial Code if it is a public game. Otherwise this constitutes a violation of § 284 StGB. This is the case if the game is offered to a changing group of people. Participation as a player is already punishable under Section 285 of the Criminal Code if the game of chance takes place without official permission. Since October 2006, online gambling has been banned in the United States by prohibiting credit institutions from maintaining a cash flow to providers. Fan Tan as a bean gameOne-armed bandits, online slot machines and other slot machinesLottery games such as bingo, keno, lottery and the parlor game of the same name, Belle, Biribi (Cavagnole), number lotteries and final digit lotteries such as the Christmas lottery, the spiral of fortune, the class lotteries, and further sweepstakesVarious bets, such as sports betting (at the bookmaker or at the totalizer, as well as the Calcutta auction) Typologization based on social psychological factors Although gambling (alea) can apparently not take comparable forms, such as the weekly double head round in the circle of friends, horse betting in the hippodrome, roulette in the casino and the spatially independent lottery, the differences according to Schütte are primarily determined by sociological factors: fashion, accessibility and affordability. In his opinion, a general psychological differentiation is not necessary. The sociological and psychological factors interact and are synonymous in categorization. Normal gambling can be an expression of various factors and typologized based on these. Socio-economic factors Gambling can be divided into two separate forms: cost-intensive gambling with a social component and physical presence of the player, for example horse betting, and anonymous inexpensive gambling such as lottery. The higher the socio-economic and professional status, the greater the tendency towards the former form. As a factor, Schütte isolates the perceived need to live according to one's own social standard and to present generosity and wealth on an equal footing in order to increase prestige and recognition. Gambling is a tool here to distinguish the better-off from the lower classes, who cannot afford the “ticket to the game”, that is, the high stakes. A study by Chantal et al. Has also shown that horse betting is not primarily about increasing money. approved. The number lotto, on the other hand, offers people in lower social strata, who are dissatisfied with their everyday life and social status, the hopeful illusion of being able to achieve economic and social mobility through gambling. Gambling has an equalizing function through participation alone. This form of play is characterized by very high potential winnings, since social advancement can only be achieved through enormous inflows of funds. This contrasts with a low stake, because this type of player typically has low cash. After all, the point of the game is to get it. High winnings and low stakes inevitably come at the expense of the likelihood of winning, which the player closes his eyes to. The most relevant example is the lottery (the number lottery). The probability of choosing six correct numbers in the variant “6 out of 49” is less than ten millionth - the probability of winning the main prize with six correct numbers and the correct super number in a single attempt is accordingly only 1: 139,838,160 . The typical lottery player is subject to an enormous misjudgment of this probability. In 1960 Caillois saw clear signs of escapism in the alea: the game artificially creates an equality of people that does not exist in reality. Reality is replaced by perfect situations and transformed to the goal of escaping from it. Schütte bases the play slope of the lower classes in the compensation of psychological and material deprivation, which leaves people unsatisfied. Daily work is a duty here, the only benefit of which is wages. With this, the worker now tries to compensate for the alienation caused by the work in private. Gambling suggests the opportunity to recover from work, regain control of one's life, and assert performance and success against competition. The need for a demonstration of self-confidence, decision-making ability and independence remains reserved for gambling in its satisfaction. Situational factors Through group pressure and reward through social recognition, a person may be required to play. For it to take effect, it is necessary to be able to easily access the game of chance, such as the kiosk, which accepts lottery tickets. The Internet is now gaining in importance, as can be seen from the current discussion about accepting lottery tickets at the supermarket checkout and private intermediary services on the Internet. A sub-supply of alternative occupations also favors gambling behavior. Learning factors The player develops a certain expectation from an observed game series. If he wins frequently, he believes in a winning streak and assumes that it will continue. However, if he loses more often, he tells himself that the bad luck experienced will be compensated in the future in order to restore balance. So in both cases, he expects future profits, but in both cases, the odds of profit and loss remain absolutely unchanged. There must be an imbalance between profits and losses, and the amount of the profit is irrelevant. The learning process can theoretically be illustrated with the help of reinforcement plans that achieve their maximum efficiency with discontinuous quota reinforcement. Probability perception factors Humans usually perceive probabilities in a distorted way. As the prospect theory sheds light on, one is gaining risk aversion and loss risk taking. Past events are easily overestimated in their degree of representation. If a person knows a lottery winner who has won with his birthday numbers, he is tempted to think that this is an effective strategy. On the contrary, it makes sense not to type the frequently used 19 (beginning of all birth years of the 20th century) and the monthly numbers from 1 to 12, because if you win with them, the amount of the prize must be divided among more winners than with less frequently typed Numbers. By dividing the money into small units while playing slots or symbolizing fictionalization in the form of chips in casinos - the gaming money used by casinos is just as useless as a means of payment as that of children - the real value of the money is obscured and the perception of risk is weakened. Rogers mentions another bias due to the incorrect assumption that the probability is auto-corrective, that sooner or later all combinations of numbers will be drawn and thus persistence will certainly pay off, and that all numbers will be drawn equally often, that is, the probability of numbers that have been rare so far is higher lies as a more frequently drawn. The player does not understand the fact that every draw is independent of all previous draws. Combinations and numbers that have already been drawn are just as likely as draws that have not yet been drawn (so-called player fallacy). Often, the law of large numbers is mistakenly interpreted as a law of compensation as alleged evidence. The common assumption that the probability of winning increases if a jackpot has not been won is a fallacy with many jackpot systems. One speaks of the rollover phenomenon. Furthermore, a "near miss phenomenon" is observed, which suggests that the profit is getting closer and closer, whereby the first player has the same probability of winning in the present as the veteran. According to Reid, a close hit in skill games has a motivating effect, since the skill required for a hit no longer seems far away. Coupled with the illusion of control, this means that near matches, for example a number next to the ball in roulette, also motivate the player in games of chance. The study by Côté et al. confirms that near-winnings lead to more enduring gaming and increased spending. Perception of skill factors An actual or supposed influence of the player on the chance of winning increases the attraction of the game and leads to increased game endurance. Human psycho-hygiene arranges that he attributes gains internally and losses externally. Subject to this control illusion, the player overestimates the probability of winning. In sports betting, which apparently is not entirely a matter of chance, players can use their knowledge to better assess the probabilities and thus increase their chances of winning. However, in the rarest of cases this will lead to a positive profit expectation, since bookmaker fees usually make up a considerable part of the actual, mathematically correct, payout. If this fact is hidden, the player has the illusion of being able to beat the game, although this is not the case. Even the possibility of drawing a ticket or ticking the lottery numbers is enough to create an illusion of control, even though this contradicts all logic. Here the game is classified incorrectly. It is thought to be a game of skill, even though it is a game of chance. This is also reflected in observations that dice players are willing to put more money on their own throws than on strangers. There are rituals that, from the player's perspective, have a positive impact on the probability of winning, or the misconception that there are people with more or less luck. Griffiths was able to show that there are clear differences in perception of skill. While less than half of the normal gamblers believe that slot machine success depends mainly on skill, all excessive gamblers thought so. Any game can be corrupted by removing the demarcation from reality. The greatest enemy of alea is superstition. The temptation is great to see reality as a game of chance and thus slip into a passive and resigned fatalism and determinism. Likewise, superstition can penetrate the world of the game by fortune tellers trying to anticipate the outcome of the game. In both cases, the game idea is broken down. Players who are unable to resist the impulse to gamble, even if this has serious consequences in their personal, family or professional environment or at least threatens to do so, are referred to as pathological gamblers. According to Hayer, Meerkerk and Mheen, young men in particular represent a risk group for pathological gambling. The recording of player characteristics and developments in gaming behavior in connection with the early stages and addiction progressions are important for the development of prevention and treatment measures: "[...], problem gambling has emerged as the primary issue raised by gambling liberalization. In this way, the pathological gambler, rather than the process of gambling liberalization, has been constructed and mobilized as the object of policy and intervention. " The number of costs due to gambling addiction is controversial among scientists. A study by the Research Center for Gambling estimates the annual social costs of pathological gamblers in Germany at 300 to 600 million euros (compared to 20 to 50 billion euros in tobacco consumption and 20 to 30 billion euros in alcohol consumption), with the share caused by commercial slot machines is estimated at 225 million euros. On this basis, an analysis funded and commissioned by the gaming machine industry from the Research Institute for Gambling and Betting comes to the conclusion that, although gambling addiction is a serious illness, the economic impact of using a cost-benefit analysis is far below that Welfare costs, which arise from alcohol and tobacco abuse, would result from the annual social costs of 40 billion euros. Especially for the area of commercially operated gaming machines, the analysis compares annual social costs of 225 to 300 million euros with economic benefits (income) of 1.37 billion euros. According to the Federal Center for Health Education, sports betting on the Internet and gaming machines are particularly dangerous. According to a study by the universities of Greifswald and Lübeck, around 193,000 people in Germany are pathologically addicted to gambling. For a summary of further examination results, see also Pathological Gaming. The research institute for gambling and betting comes to the conclusion in a short scientific report that when evaluating the addiction potential on the basis of absolute figures on the pathological gaming behavior, it cannot be concluded that the forms of gaming are at risk. On the basis of an assessment, which in addition to the number of pathological players also includes the intensity of the respective game and the gross game yields (pathology-potential coefficient), the report comes to the conclusion that the pathological addiction potential of these game types may be presented in a distorted manner. An investigation into the gambling ban in Vienna shows that the ban on so-called “small gambling” turns addicts to expanding illegal gaming providers. Illegal gambling and organized crime Gambling is considered immoral in many societies, partly because of the risk of addiction. Uncontrolled gambling is illegal in most states and is often organized crime; Legal gambling is usually subject to various restrictions. An example of this is the XY gang involved in gambling and drug trafficking in Brandenburg. Scoreboard on the Frankfurt racecourseIn Germany, classic games of chance and slot machines are offered in casinos. Slot machines, whose use and profit opportunities are limited, may also be operated in arcades and restaurants. Lottery and scratch cards are distributed through acceptance and sales outlets, which are mostly magazine and tobacco shops. Lotteries are also offered, especially for charitable purposes such as Aktion Mensch. While there are over a hundred bookmakers based on the Racing Betting and Lottery Act, which came into force in 1922, the offers of sports betting that can be concluded in sports betting shops and via the Internet are relatively new. Online casinos cannot be operated in Germany except in Schleswig-Holstein. Legalization under strict conditions is only planned with the State Treaty on Gaming Regulation on July 1, 2021. Playing in a foreign online casino is also punishable (§ 285 StGB). According to a study carried out in 2015 by the Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA), 37.3% of Germans took part in games of chance. At 43.3%, participation was higher for men than for 31.3% for women. In 2015, gross gaming revenue was H. the total of the wagers made minus the winnings distributed, approx. 10.4 billion euros per year for game offers regulated by law in Germany and a further 2.3 billion euros for unregulated game offers (illegal and cross-border online offers). This corresponds to an increase of 8% in relation to all game offers compared to the previous year, although the unregulated share increased by 30%. The federal states are responsible for gambling and betting. In 2016, lottery and lottery revenues were € 3.6 billion. In order to regulate the gaming market, the federal states concluded an interstate gaming contract, which had to be amended twice so far after corresponding court rulings. It regulates the lottery, lotteries, sports betting, casinos and the installation of gaming machines in arcades, but not the requirements for gaming machines. Their properties are regulated by the Gaming Ordinance as well as by the Commercial Code. There are around 190,000 gaming machines in around 9,100 German arcades and 77,000 in restaurants. The Gauselmann Group, as the largest slot machine manufacturer in Germany, had a total turnover of around 1.7 billion euros in 2016. Gambling in Austria After the introduction of restrictive laws for different types of gambling, police and authorities also took more stringent action against illegal gaming machines in 2016. In the first 4 months of 2016, 860 gaming machines (including 375 in Upper Austria and 110 in Vienna) were confiscated by the state in order to destroy them if the procedures were successful. Due to the stronger regulations, particularly in the case of gaming machines, there was a shift in sales towards sports betting and online casinos with a simultaneous decline in profits for casinos and traditional providers. In 2016, gaming and betting stakes increased by 9.9% over the previous year to 17.9 billion euros. Gambling in Switzerland A study commissioned by the Swiss Federal Casino Commission and the Federal Office of Justice in 2004 showed that 21.2% of the Swiss population over the age of 18 frequently took part in games of chance. Residents of French and Italian Switzerland tend to play more often than residents of German-speaking Switzerland. The majority of the players, namely around 20.6%, play lottery offers such as Lotto, Toto, Sportlotto or similar games. 7% of the Swiss use foreign lotteries. Gambling in the United States Harrah's Cherokee CasinoThe responsibility for gambling lies with the states, which usually have so-called “gaming control boards” (gaming control authorities), which ensure compliance with the respective regulations. A specialty in the USA is "Indian Gambling", which allows Indian tribes to operate casinos on their own land, regardless of the laws of the states. Indian Gambling generated $ 26.5 billion in 2012. In total, casinos wagered around $ 57.5 billion this year. Lotteries are also hosted by the states in the United States. Lotteries are available in 44 of the 50 states, as well as in the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands. In 2011, the state's lottery revenue totaled $ 17.9 billion in lotteries. Gambling worldwide Australia tops the global gambling distribution statistics by per capita net expenses, where winnings are deducted from stakes. In 2010, an Australian spent an average of $ 1288 on gambling, followed by Singapore, where spending was $ 1174. European countries rank 4th (Ireland: $ 588), 5th (Finland: $ 533), 6 (Italy: $ 517), 8 (Norway: $ 448), 9 (Greece: $ 420) and 10 ( Spain: $ 418). Germany is not listed in this top ten ranking. The comparative value for 2012 is approximately € 132 ($ 198). Gambling in computer games In recent years, subliminal gambling elements in computer games have been increasingly dealt with in the media and politically, since many current online computer games now use gambling elements as a business model. However, legal questions remain unanswered.
Will PSG buy football player Thomas? RMC assures that the whole of the capital has also asked about the midfielder. Manchester United and Arsenal also attentive. All big football clubs watch new football star. Bet if you are sure which club will finalize his transfer! Thomas Partey's continuity at Atlético de Madrid is in question. The rojiblanco club put a renewal offer on the table last October that is still unsigned and now, after the offer from Arsenal confirmed by his father and another from Manchester United, the interest of Paris Saint-Germain is added. According to RMC Sport, PSG are considering Thomas Partey to strengthen their midfield. Leonardo, Parisian sports director, wants new members for this plot and Atlético's appears as a good option with experience at the highest level and for a relatively affordable price: the 50 million euros of its termination clause. In the Wanda Metropolitano they still trust in a renovation that would double their salary and also the price to pay for their departure. Paris Saint Germain does not have an excess of troops in the midfield. This year they were reinforced with Ander Herrera and Idrissa Gana Gueye as well as Paredes, defensive midfielder, Verratti, plus five than midfielder, Julian Draxler, reconverted as midfielder and youth player Adil Aouchiche. Thomas would have to earn a place in eleven as he has in Atlético, where this season he is the third in the squad that accumulates the most minutes although he falls to the 16th position on the salary scale. Odumase Krobo's opens new way to Paris. History and origin of the Soccer Ball Who invented the soccer ball? How has it been throughout history? Know all that there has been since the origin of football The soccer ball is the element around which the sport revolves. Over time, its shape and composition have changed to achieve the highest sphericity and aerodynamics possible and allow for a more precise game. The balls of today have nothing to do with those used decades ago. The development of this ball has been linked to the changes that soccer has undergone. A story that can be perceived by looking at the origins and evolution of the ball over the years in the world cups, its most representative (and important) tournament. At Showroom we compile the history and origin of the soccer ball to understand how it has changed to become a more complete element. What was the first soccer ball? Throughout history there have been various civilizations and peoples that used balls for different games or sports. For example, the Mesoamerican ball game or pok ta’pok practiced by the Mayans more than 3,000 years ago already made use of a spherical made from the sap of the rubber tree. And it is that the balls were part of the entertainment of many cultures. However, in relation to football as such, it is in the United Kingdom where the sport began to become popular in the 19th century. The English Football Association states that the balls must have a circumference of 70 centimeters and weigh between 350 and 400 grams. The first soccer balls used at this time were made of leather and called toe because of the cord that closed the seams on the outside. Inside was a pig's bladder that was filled with hay, for example. They weren't completely spherical, they didn't bounce evenly, they had a bulge in the toe area that could even harm players. And if they got wet they were much heavier and more difficult to control. Later, with the passing of the decades, the balls would evolve and these changes would be appreciated in those that were used in each Soccer World Cup. Inspired by these older and more traditional balls, in Retrofootball, for example, they sell models of cowhide for € 59 designed for those who want to have a collection design in order to display it at home or to play with it, although it has the hexagonal segments that were invented in the most recent times. History of the soccer ball in the World Cups The tiento, the first protagonist In the first World Cup in the history of soccer, the one held in 1930 in Uruguay, the original balls were used with a pig's bladder inside. In fact, in the final between the host country and Argentina, they used one made in each country for each of the parties. And it is that on Ebay they sell for collectors from 139 euros one of the balls used in this competition. In the years to come and in subsequent years, the balls changed. The interior bladder that gave them consistency began to be replaced at the 1938 World Cup in France by an inflatable valve that allowed the balloon to be inflated without having to undo it. In turn, the panels with which they are made increase and the models that used the 18 panels in the year 1954 in Switzerland appear. Following the style of these times there have been brands like Retrofootball that have created balls inspired by it. The COPA Football model that they sell for 59.95 euros is a retro-cut ball for vintage soccer fans who want a classic design but with today's technology. Another example is Nike, which sells a ball for 22.97 euros similar to honor the foundation of the F.C. Barcelona in 1899. This also continues the design of the leather and leather balls but made with modern cotton and latex and sewn by hand. A detail for soccer fans and their history. The segments that formed the contour and the shape of the ball did not allow making a ball too spherical, which reinforced its irregularity. In the year 62, at the World Cup held in Chile, Crack, the name of the official ball of this competition, changed the shape of its panels. They expanded and changed their shape to have 12 hexagonal and six rectangular, which contributed to a more regular appearance. It also incorporated the latex valve that kept the air in its previous one longer. However, the rectangular segments returned to the traditional model in the year 66 in which it was the first ball created by a commercial brand: Slazenger. The great revolution came in 1970 in the Mexican championship. Adidas became the brand that would create the ball for the World Cups and introduced the famous Telstar. This brought as a novelty that, even being made of leather, it had 32 polygonal segments and adopted the black and white color that would establish itself as the main one to facilitate being seen by spectators. Following this design, Adidas created in Argentina 1978 another ball that marked an era: the Tango with hexagonal segments and that would be used during 6 editions, although it would undergo variations. In the 1982 World Cup in Spain, leather and polyurethane were combined to make it waterproof and ensure that water and humidity did not make it heavier. The other big change came four years later, when the first fully synthetic ball was created that further reduced water absorption from those seen to date. To this day it is still a ball that is for sale on Amazon from 20.85 euros. While the Tango lasted, models were created that improved the composition using polyethylene foam, braided fiber nets, resistant micro gas bubbles, polyurethane on the outside ... All of this contributed to creating more manageable, resistant and spherical balls. It was in 2002 when Tango stopped being used and Fevernova arrived, used in the World Cup in Korea and Japan and one of the most remembered in these competitions. It stood out for its colorful design that was inspired by the culture of both countries. It incorporated a new system of three woven layers to have a more precise and predictable flight. It is from 2002 when the most groundbreaking news in soccer balls begin to arrive. The 2006 World Cup featured a ball with fewer segments, the Teamgeist. Although it is in 2010 when one of the most revolutionary was created: the Jabulani, protagonist of the World Cup in South Africa due to the difficulty of stopping and the strangers it seemed to do in the air. It was the most spherical that had ever been created. And the employee in the World Cup Final, the Jo'bulani, with whom Spain won its first world championship with the legendary goal of Andrés Iniesta is already a legendary ball. In 2014 the Brazuca arrived that with six panels tried to maintain the same control, weight and roundness in all scenes regardless of the area through which it is improved. And finally, in 2018, Adidas chose to return to the legendary Telstar in the World Cup in Russia in a tribute to said ball that you can buy from 48 euros on Amazon. This time with technological improvements never seen before. It is not that it had 6 panels instead of the original 32, it is that it incorporated a chip with which it was allowed to know if the ball crossed the goal line. From leather, pig's carcass and bladder to polyurethane and technological chips. Quite a change in the ball, the great protagonist of football. To show this, you only have to see the Nike Merlin League ball, developed with the latest advances that were the official in the LFP in the 2018-2019 season or the new La Liga 1 developed by Puma, which is the new official ball LaLiga from the 2019-2020 season.
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