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France Ligue 1
Ligue 1, also called Ligue 1 Conforama, is a France professional league for football clubs of the men's associations. At the top of the France football football league system, it is the most important football competition in the country. The Ligue de Football Professionnel managed Ligue 1, which is contested by 20 clubs and maintains a promotion and relegation system with Ligue 2.
The seasons last from August to May. The clubs play during the season two games against the other teams in the league - once at home and once abroad - a total of 38 games. Most games are played on Saturdays and Sundays, some on weekday evenings. The game is regularly interrupted on the last weekend before Christmas for two weeks, before it resumes in the second week of January. The Ligue 1 is one of the best national leagues and currently occupies fifth place in Europe behind the Spanish La Liga, the English Premier League, the Italian Serie A football and the German Bundesliga football.
The Ligue 1 was inaugurated on September 11, 1932 under the name National, before she moved after a year of existence in Division 1. The name lasted until 2002, before it was changed to the current name. The AS Saint-Étienne is the most successful club in France with ten league titles, while Olympique Lyonnais is the club that has won the most titles in a row (seven between 2002 and 2008). With 69 seasons in Ligue 1, Olympique de Marseille holds the record for most seasons in the elite, while Paris Saint-Germain holds the league's longevity lead with 45 consecutive seasons (from 1974 to at least 2019). The current champion is Paris Saint-Germain, who won his eighth title in the 2018-19 season. The league has been won several times by the foreign club AS Monaco, making the league a cross-border competition.
The professionalism of French football did not exist until July 1930, when the National Council of French Football Federation 128-20 voted in favor. The founding fathers of French football are Georges Bayrou, Emmanuel Gambardella and Gabriel Hanot. Professionalism was officially introduced in 1932.
In order to create a professional football league in the country, the association has limited the league to twenty clubs. In order to participate in the competition, the clubs had to fulfill three important criteria:
The incoming club must have achieved positive results in the past.
The new club must be able to generate enough revenue to balance its finances.
The incoming club must be able to recruit at least eight professional players.
Many clubs disagreed with the subjective criteria, notably Strasbourg, RC Roubaix, Amiens SC and Stade Français, while others like Rennes, fearing bankruptcy and Olympique Lillois, did not want to become professional because of a conflict of interest. The president of Olympique Lillois, Henri Jooris, also chairman of the Ligue du Nord, feared that his league would fail, and proposed to make it the second league of the new league. After all, many clubs gained a professional status, although it became more difficult to convince clubs in the northern half of the country. Strasbourg, RC Roubaix and Amiens refused to accept the new league, while Mulhouse, Excelsior AC Roubaix, Metz and Fives accepted professionalism. In the south of France, clubs such as Olympique de Marseille, Hyères, SO Montpellier, SC Nîmes, Cannes, Antibes and Nice greatly supported the new league and accepted their professional status without any arguments.
The opening season of the League of All-Pros, called National, took place from 1932 to 1933. The 20 founding members of National were Antibes, Paris, Cannes, Club Français, Excelsior AC Roubaix, Fives, Hyères, Marseille, Metz, Mulhouse, Nice, Nimes, Olympique Ales, Olympique Lillois, Racing Club de France, Red Star Olympique, Rennes, Sochaux, Sète and Montpellier. The 20 clubs were divided into two groups of ten, with the bottom three of the groups had to descend into Division 2. The two winners of each group then faced each other in a final, which was played in a neutral place and later turned out for the Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir. The first final took place on May 14, 1933 and met the winner of Group A, Olympique Lillois, against the runner-up of Group B, Cannes. Antibes, winner of Group B, was to take part in the final, but was suspected by the French Football Association of Bribery and forced to disqualify. In the first final Lillois was crowned after the 4: 3 victory of the club to the opening champion. After the season, the league decided to keep the 14 clubs and to promote any teams from the second division. The league also agreed to change their name from National to simply Division 1. For the 1934/35 season, the league organized a legitimate promotion and relegation system that increased the total number of clubs in the first division to 16. The number persisted until 1938 -39 season.
Due to the Second World War, the football was blocked by the French government and the Ligue de Football Professionnel, although the member clubs continued to participate in regional competitions. During the "war championships", as they are called, the professionalism was abolished by the Vichy regime and the clubs were forced to participate in regional leagues called Zone Sud and Zone North. Due to the non-association with the two leagues, the LFP and the FFF do not recognize the championships won by the clubs and therefore do not exist in the opinion of the two organizations from 1939 to 1945. After the war and the liberation of France professional football returned to France. The first league increased their club allocation to 18. This number remained until the 1965/66 season, when the number was increased to 20. In 2002, the league changed its name from Division 1 to Ligue 1.
In Ligue 1 there are 20 clubs. During a season, usually from August to May, each club plays twice, once in the home stadium and once in the opponent's stadium. A total of 38 games, although a special Under certain circumstances, a club can host matches elsewhere, for example, as Lille 2007 and 2008 hosted at the Stade de France in Lyon. The teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. The teams are scored according to the total score, goal difference and goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points will be crowned champion. If the points are equal, the goal difference and the goals scored determine the winner. If they are still the same, it is assumed that the teams occupy the same position. If there is a draw for the championship, relegation or qualification to other competitions, a play-off game at a neutral venue will decide the rank. For the 2015/16 season only, 2 teams should relegate and only 2 teams from Ligue 2 football should be promoted, but this decision was lifted and 3 teams were relegated and 3 teams promoted. It was the season 2016/17, in which a relegation play-off between the 18th Ligue 1 team and the 3rd Ligue 2 team was held on two legs again. The Ligue 2 team hosted the relegation first game.
Previously, the league used a different ascent and descent format. Before 1995, the format of the league was the direct descent of the two lowest teams and a jump-off between the third last Erstligamannschaft and the winner of the second division team, similar to the Dutch Eredivisie, and the German Bundesliga. The league also experimented with a "bonus" rule. From 1973 to 1976, a rule rewarded teams that scored three or more goals in a game with an extra point, regardless of outcome, with the aim of promoting offensive play. The experience was ultimately inconclusive. At the start of the 2006/07 season, the league introduced an offensive play-table to score more goals in Ligue 1 and Ligue 2. The LFP, with the help of former manager Michel Hidalgo, proposed the idea of rewarding these teams. Who scores the most goals? The table was similar to the previous idea, but was independent of the official table and the clubs were rewarded only with cash bonuses.
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